Saturday, October 27, 2018

Bladder cancer; Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment, Medicines

bladder cancer
Bladder cancer

What is bladder cancer?

The bladder is a hollow pneumatic organ in the human body in the lower part of the stomach, in which urine is accumulated. Cancer occurs in the bladder when the tissues of the tissues begin to grow exceptionally in its internal layers.

Bladder cancer is more in men than women, it can happen at any age. Bladder cancer mostly develops in the cells of the bladder, in the layer of the hollow place where urine is collected. Although cancer is quite common in the bladder, this kind of cancer can occur anywhere in the urethra.

(Read more - Cancer Symptoms and Causes)

Bladder Cancer Symptoms
What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Indications and symptoms of bladder cancer include:

  • Hematuria
  • Painful urination 
  • Pelvic pain

If your urine is bleeding then its colour can be red or brown. Sometimes there is no change in urine, but urine microscopic test is detected in urine. In addition to those who have bladder cancer, they can also experience the following symptoms like:

  • back pain
  • Frequent urination

But these symptoms can often be due to any other reason other than bladder cancer.

When should the doctor show up?

If you should go to the doctor,

  • You find the presence of blood in the urine.
  • If there is a need to urinate again and again.
  • If you suddenly feel the need to urinate
  • If the pain is felt while doing urine.

The presence of the above symptoms in a person does not give bladder a sure sign of cancer, but the doctor is required to check these symptoms.


Bladder Cancer Causes

What can cause bladder cancer?

DNA structures of cancer cells can be triggered by any type of mutation or mutation, where the effects of their growing process can take the form of 'cancer'. This means that when the cells develop uncontrolled then they take the form of a lump of tissue, called tumours.

Some factors have been identified, which can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.

1. Smoking -

  • Smoking can be the only major risk factor for bladder cancer because many chemicals that develop cancer in tobacco are found.

  • If you have been smoking for many years, then these chemicals are found in the blood and then the kidneys filter them into the urine. When urine is accumulated in the bladder, during that time the bladder repeatedly comes in touch with these chemicals, which affects the bladder layer and affects the risk of cancer in the person concerned.
  • Those who smoke four times a day, they are more likely to develop cancer than others who do not smoke.

2. Coming into contact with chemicals (chemicals)

Bladder cancer is the second biggest risk factor for exposure to some industrial chemicals. The chemicals considered to be risk factors for bladder cancer include:

  • Aniline Dyes
  • Benzidine
  • O-toluidine

There are also some business/jobs that make up the risk of bladder cancer, mainly including the following:

  • Colours related business/jobs (Dyes)
  • Textile industry related business/jobs
  • Rubber Industry Related Business / Jobs (Rubbers)
  • Paint related business/jobs
  • Plastic Industry-Related Business / Jobs (Plastics)
  • Tannery related business/jobs

At the same time taxicabs and bus drivers also have a high risk of bladder cancer because they are regularly exposed to chemicals in diesel smoke.

3. Other Risk Factors -

Apart from the above, some other factors which can increase the risk of bladder cancer include:

  • Radiation therapy, such as using radiation therapy to treat cancer near the bladder.

  • Treatment with chemotherapy or medicines before ever.
    • Surgery for treating prolapse gland. 
    • The person suffers from sugar syndrome - The risk of bladder cancer is also added to some treatments of type 2 diabetes.
    • The tube (catheter) is found in the bladder for a long time - it is often needed during the closing of veins due to paralysis.
    • Repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs) for long periods of time.
    • Presence of stones in the urinary bladder for a long time
    • Pre-menopause (42 years ago).

    Prevention of Bladder Cancer
    How can prevent bladder cancer?

    • If you smoke, leave it immediately, although this does not completely reduce the risk of bladder cancer.
    • Avoid contact with dangerous chemicals at your workplace; If your work involves the use of chemicals, then make sure that you are keeping yourself safe.
    • Drink plenty of fluids, because liquids tend to dilute the elements inside the body that cause cancer, and before exposing them, they urinate them out of the body with urination.

    Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer
    How is bladder cancer diagnosed?

    Bladder cancer is determined on the following basis.

    • The symptoms of the disease present in your body,
    • Your family's previous medical information
    • Examining your rectum and vagina, because of bladder cancer, these areas often cause a clear lump in these areas.
    • Or you come in any contact that is likely to cause cancer, like smoking.
    Along with this, many additional tests that are needed include:

    • Urine tests - Samples of urine can be examined in the laboratory, wherein blood, bacteria and abnormal cells can be detected.
    • Cystoscopy - If you have been referred to the specialist hospital and doctors think that you may have bladder cancer, then the 'cystoscopy' test is done first. This is a process that helps in checking the inner part of the bladder. In this process, a tube is inserted in the urinary bladder through the urinary tract, which is the camera at the end which is called a cystoscope. It takes about 5 minutes to complete the investigation process.
    • Imaging scan - If the doctor thinks that they need more photos of your bladder and deeper information, they can suggest a CT scan or MRI scan. 
    • Intravenous urogram - In this process, a special type of colour (dye) is inserted into the blood and its picture is taken with the help of X-rays. After that, it goes out through the urinary tract. (Read more - What is X-Ray)
    • Biopsy - In this process, a piece is removed from the abnormal tissue as a sample and it is tested for cancer. Many times, a piece (sample) is removed from the bladder layer and it is examined to see if there is no cancer spread. But it can also be a separate operation that is done within 6 months of biopsy.

     Bladder Cancer Treatment

    How is bladder cancer treated?

    Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on many factors, including cancer type, grade and stage. Along with these, your overall health and treatment of your choice are also taken into account.

    Treatment of bladder cancer may include the following procedures:

    • Surgery - Surgery is used to remove cancerous tissues.
    • Chemotherapy in the bladder - This procedure is used for those tissues that are limited to the bladder wall but they may be afraid to grow or again.
    • Reconstruction - It is used to make a new way to remove urination. This is especially done when the bladder is removed from the body.
    • Radiation therapy - It is used to destroy cancerous cells, where there is no substitute for surgery, but it is often used as primary treatment.

    • Immunotherapy - In this process, the immune system is stimulated to fight cancer cells, under which the immune system is stimulated for the whole body or just in the bladder.
    A combination of methods of treatment as well as above can be suggested by your doctor.

    1. Bladder cancer surgery

    Bladder cancer treatment may include:

    • Transurethral resection of bladder tumours of a bladder tumour - it is also called TURBT. In this process, cancer cells removed from the bladder layer are removed. These are cancerous tumours that have not yet taken aggressive form.
    • Cystectomy - In this process, the entire bladder or any part of it is taken out.
    • Bladder reconstruction - After an acute systemic procedure, doctors can make a new way to get urine out of the urine. 
    2. Chemotherapy

    1. Chemotherapy medicines can be given in the following ways:
    2. Through one of the veins located in the hand,
    • Through a tube, which is sent directly inside the urinary bladder to the bladder.
    • In chemotherapy drugs are used to destroy the cancer cells. Chemotherapy treatment for bladder cancer is usually used in combination with two or more chemotherapy drugs.
    • Chemotherapy is used especially prior to surgery to remove bladder in order to increase the chances of recovery of cancer. Chemotherapy can also be used to destroy cancerous cells, which often survive after surgery. Chemotherapy is also sometimes used with radiation therapy. This is done in very select cases where it is used as a substitute for surgery.
    3. Radiation therapy

    High energy rays are used in this therapy. The targets of these rays are cancerous cells. Radiation therapy made for bladder cancer is usually done by a machine that revolves around the patient's body and helps power rays go to the exact point.
    In select cases, when there is no substitute for surgery, radiation therapy is used as a substitute for surgery with chemotherapy.

    4. Immunotherapy

    • It is also called biological therapy. It prompts the body's immune system to help fight cancer cells.
    • Immunotherapy for bladder cancer is usually administered in the urinary tract or directly in the bladder.
    5. Care after the treatment of bladder cancer

    Even after successful treatment of bladder cancer, bladder cancer is likely to happen again, and for this reason, people have to come back from time to time to get tested. Which tests will be your and how often will it depend on the type of bladder cancer and how it has been treated.

    6. Palliative care 

    • If cancer has reached the critical stage and it is not being treated, then in this situation, doctors talk about the available treatments for cancer and to relieve their symptoms.
    • In this situation, try to control the patient's pain and other symptoms and give the patient psychological, social and spiritual support.
    Medicines for Bladder Cancer
    Many medicines are available for bladder cancer But keep in mind that without consulting the doctor, please do not take any medicines. By taking medicines without the advice of a doctor, your health can be seriously damaged.

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