Thursday, October 25, 2018

What is cancer?


Cancer: Our body is composed of many types of cells. As these cells are needed by them, these cells divide and grow in a controlled way. But sometimes it happens that the body does not need any of these cells, yet they continue to grow. This abnormal development of cells is called cancer (which is usually produced from an abnormal cell) in which the cells lose normal control. Thus, a group of cells continuously increase uncontrolled, which attacks surrounding adjacent tissues, which reaches the distant parts of the body and spreads through the lymph or blood to other parts of the body. Cancer cells can grow in any tissue of the body.

As the cancer cells grow and multiply, they take the form of a group of cancer cells called tumours. These tumours attack nearby tissues and destroy them. Tumour can cause cancers or non-cancerous. Cancer cells can spread from one place to the entire body (metastases).

Development and Spread of Cancer

Cancer cells develop from healthy cells in a complex process called fatal changes.

Cancer initiation

The change in the cell's genetic material is cancer. Changes in the genetic material of a cell can happen either by itself or by some agents or elements. These agents are Chemicals, Tobacco, Virus, Radiation and Sunlight. But it is not necessary that all cells are equally affected with these agents. A genetic defect in cells makes these agents susceptible to the body. Even long-term physical irritation can also make these agents susceptible to one cell.

Cancer growth

Some agents or agents (promoters) cause to grow in the development of cancer. These agents may also contain some substances or medicines available in the environment such as sex hormone testosterone which is used to improve sexual desire and energy in older men. Unlike carcinogens, these promoters themselves do not cause cancer. Instead, these promoters promote the growth of cancer-affected cells. These promoters have no effect on the cells in which the onset of cancer has not started.

Elements that cause some cancers cause cancer without the need of promoters. For example, ionizing radiation - which is mostly used in X-rays) can cause various cancers, especially sarcoma, leukaemia, thyroid cancer and breast cancers.

How does cancer spread?

Cancer can grow directly in the surrounding tissues or spread to organs, whether they are away or nearby. Cancer can spread through the lymphatic system. This type of dispersal also occurs in carcinoma. For example, breast cancer usually spreads to the nearest lymph nodes in the vicinity and later it spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can also spread through blood flow. This type of spread is also found in sarcoma cancer.

Types of Cancer
There are many types of cancer, some of them are -

1. Breast cancer
2. Cervical cancer
3. Mouth cancer 
4. Prostate cancer 
5. cervical cancer
6. Ovarian Cancer 
7. Lung cancer 
8. colon cancer
9. Blood cancer 
10.Bone cancer 
11. Colorectal cancer
12. Throat cancer
13. Liver cancer
14. Vaginal cancer
15. Skin cancer
16. bladder cancer
17. Pancreatic cancer
18. Brain cancer 
19. Lymphoma
20. Kidney cancer 
21. Testicular cancer

Stages of Cancer

Cancer tissues can be divided into the blood and blood-forming tissues (leukaemia and lymphomas) and "solid" tumours (solid mass of cells), often called cancer. Cancer can be carcinoma or sarcoma.

Leukaemia and lymphoma are blood cancer. Leukaemia is produced from blood-borne cells, in which bone marrow and immature white blood cells with high amounts of blood flow are displaced instead of normal blood cells. Cancer lymph nodes are expanded in lymphoma. Lymphoma often begins with lymph nodes but it can also be found in the adjacent, genital, stomach, chest or intestine.

Carcinoma is the most common type of cancer. In which cancer cells affect the internal and external parts of the body such as lungs, breast and stomach cancer. It starts with the epithelium tissue of the skin. Examples of carcinoma are cancer of the skin, lungs, colon, stomach, breast, prostate, and thyroid gland. Typically, people older than men are more carcinoma than carcinoma.

Tumours occurring in sarcoma tissues (tissues) are associated with each other. Common connective tissues include fat, blood vessels, nerves, bones, muscles, cartilage etc. Examples of sarcoma are - leiomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Typically, this cancer is higher in older people than older people.

Cancer Symptoms

When cancer cells are in very small form then the signs of cancer do not appear. But as cancer grows, its presence can affect the surrounding tissues. Apart from this, due to some cancer, the secretion of certain substances from the body or some cancers trigger immune responses, from which parts of the body which are away from the parts of the cancerous genus can also cause cancer symptoms.

Pain - Some cancers are painless before, but the initial symptom of some cancers can be painful, such as brain tumours, which lead to a headache, and head, neck and anophthal cancers, which cause pain during swallowing. As the cancer increases, its first symptom is often uncomfortable, which can rapidly turn into severe pain with the spread of cancer. However, not all cancers cause severe pain. Likewise, the lack of pain does not guarantee that cancer is not spreading or spreading.

Bleeding - A small blood can come in cancer because its blood vessels are fragile. Later, as the cancer increases and attacks the surrounding tissues, it can increase in a nearby blood vessel, causing bleeding. This bleeding can be mild and can be diagnosed with or not, it can be detected only with the test. This is often the case of early-stage colon cancer. Bleeding in advanced cancer can be high, even this bleeding can be dangerous for life.

The place where cancer is, it determines bleeding. Bleeding may occur in the stool in cancer associated with the digestive tract. Cancer-associated with urinary tract can bleed in urine. Other cancers can cause blood in internal areas of the body. Bleeding in the lungs can cause a person to get blood in a cough.

Blood clots - Some cancers produce substances that cause the blood to form in the body, mainly in the nerves of the legs. Blood clots in the nerves of the feet sometimes break down, which spread to the whole body which can be fatal for you. Extreme cloaking is common among people with pancreatic, lungs and other solid tumours and those with brain tumours.

Weight Loss and Fatigue - Typically, the person with cancer experience weight loss and fatigue, which can further worsen this condition due to the increase in cancer. Some people have reported a loss of weight despite a good appetite. While some people may have difficulty in hunger or swallowing food. They can be very thin. People with advanced cancer often are very tired. If anaemia develops, such people may lack fatigue or shortness of breath with little activity.

Swelling in the lymph nodes - As soon as cancer begins to spread around the body, it can first spread to nearby lymph nodes, which is swollen. Inflammation lymph nodes are generally painless and may be hard or rubbish-like. If cancer studies are on stage, then these lymph nodes can get stuck in the skin above, trap them in layers of tissues or even in the middle.

Neurologic and muscular symptoms - cancer can compress the nerve or spinal cord. It can be any of neurologic and muscular symptoms such as pain, weakness or change in cognition (such as tingling stimulation) etc. When cancer increases in the brain, it can be difficult to detect symptoms, but it can cause confusion, dizziness, headache, nausea, vision changes and seizures. Symptoms of neurologic can also be part of an irreversible syndrome.

Respiratory symptoms - Cancer can compress or block structures such as airway in the lungs, which can cause shortness of breath, cough or pneumonia etc. Breathing may also occur when cancer causes the pleural effusion between the lungs and chest, causing bleeding or anaemia in the lungs.

Cancer Causes

Cancer is a comprehensive group of diseases and there are many reasons for it. Many genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of developing cancer. According to each biology and pathology, each cancer is of a different type. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the following are common factors for cancer:

1. Genetic Factors Cause Cancer - Genetic changes due to cancer can be inherited from our parents. Some families have a significant risk of developing certain types of cancer. Sometimes there is a risk of a single gene causing it to grow. Abnormalities affecting serious gene (mutation) are known to contribute to the development of cancer. These genes produce proteins that regulate growth and change cell division and other basic cell properties.

An additional or abnormal chromosome can increase the risk of cancer. For example, people with Down syndrome have three copies of chromosome 21 rather than normal two copies. They have 12 to 20 times more risk of developing leukaemia.

2. Cancer Related to Age - Some cancers such as Wilms tumours, retinoblastoma and neuroblastoma are especially in children. These cancerous sectors are produced from gene mutations that either be inherited or occur during the development of the fetus. However, most other cancers are more common in adults, especially in older people. The growth rate of cancer is probably due to long-term contact with a carcinogen.

3. Cancer Due to Environmental Factors - 
Many environmental factors increase the risk of developing cancer.

Tobacco smoke contains carcinogen which increases the risk of the lungs, mouth, throat, oesophagus, kidney and bladder cancer to a great extent. People who smoke also increase the risk of lung cancer.

Pollutants such as asbestos, industrial waste or cigarette smoke can increase the risk of cancer in air or water. Many chemicals are known to cause cancer. For example, exposure to asbestos can be the cause of lung cancer and mesothelioma (lung cancer). Staying in contact with pesticides is associated with some types of cancer (for example, leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). The reason for the development of chemicals and cancer has to come in contact with the chemical for a long time.

Radiation exposure is one of the main reasons for the development of cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is mainly due to sunlight which causes skin cancer. Ionization radiation is a special carcinogen. X-rays (including computed tomography [CT]] use the ionization radiation and those who have high levels of X-rays using high doses increase the risk of cancer. Exposure to radioactive gas radon (which is released from soil) increases the risk of lung cancer.

Many other substances are investigating possible causes of cancer, but more study is needed to identify those chemicals that increase the risk of cancer.

4. Cancer Caused by Diet - Foods are eaten in the diet can increase the risk of cancer. For example, rich diet and fatness in unsaturated fat are associated with increased risk of colon, breast and possibly prostate cancer. People who drink large amounts of alcohol, head and neck, and enropagal are at high risk of developing cancer. Spicy food or excessive consumption of barbecue meat can increase the risk of colon cancer. People overweight or obese have a greater risk of breast cancer.

5. Medical Treatments that Cause Cancer

Some medicines and medical treatments can increase the development of cancer. For example, estrogen present in oral contraceptives can increase the risk of breast cancer gradually, although this risk decreases over time. Hormone estrogens and progestins given to women during menopause (hormone replacement therapy) also increase the risk of breast cancer.

The level of extra estrogen promotes uterine cancer. Tamoxifen is a medicine used to treat breast cancer, which increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Long-term use of testosterone or another male hormone (androgen) can also increase the risk of liver cancer. Cancer treatment with some chemotherapy agents and radiation therapy can later increase the risk of developing other cancers.

6.  Cancer Caused by Infections
Many viruses are known to cause cancer in humans and many other viruses are suspected to be cancerous. The human papillomavirus (HPV - human papillomavirus) is a major cause of cervical cancer in women and is one of the reasons for penile and anal cancer in men. HPV also causes some cancers of the throat. Hepatitis B virus or the hepatitis C virus can lead to liver cancer. Some human retroviruses are due to the lymphoma and other cancers of the blood system. Some viruses cause a type of cancer in some countries, but in other countries, there are other types of cancer. For example, the Epstein-bar virus causes Burkitt lymphoma (a type of cancer) in Africa and nasal and pharyngeal cancer in China.

Some bacteria may also cause cancer. Helicobacter pylori which cause stomach ulcers can increase the risk of stomach cancer and lymphoma.

Some parasites can cause cancer. Schistosoma haematobium can cause bladder inflammation and wound, which can lead to cancer. Another type of parasitic opisthorchis sinensis is linked to the pancreas and bile ducts.

7. Inflammation Disorders Cause Cancer

Inflammatory disorders often increase the risk of cancer. Such disorders include ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, which may result in colon cancer and bile duct cancers.

8. Cancer Due to Immune System Failure

Bad immunity is the cause of many cancers including HIV infection, including capsicum sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and anal cancer associated with HPV and cervical cancer.

Prevention of Cancer
How to prevent cancer?

There is no sure way to stop cancer. But doctors have identified several ways to reduce the risk of your cancer. like -

1. Stop smoking - If you smoke, leave it immediately. And if you do not, then do not start doing it. Smoking cannot be just lung cancer, but other types of cancers.
2. Avoid excessive sunburn - The harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun can increase the risk of skin cancer. By staying in the shade, wearing protective clothing or sunscreen, you can limit the sun's risk.
3. Eat a healthy diet - Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Select Whole Grains and Fat-Exhausted Protein.
4. Exercise for most days of the week - Regular exercise can reduce the chances of getting cancer. Keep a minimum of 30 minutes of exercise.
5. Healthy Weight - Maintain Healthy Weight Overweight or obesity can increase the risk of cancer. Work to achieve and maintain a healthy weight through a healthy diet and a combination of regular exercise.
6. Reduce the intake of alcohol - excessive consumption of alcohol can increase the risk of cancer.

7. Schedule screening tests for cancer - Depending on the factors of your risk, ask the doctor if the screening test for which cancer is best for you.

Medicines for Cancer

A lot of medicines are available for cancer. All these medicines are given below. But keep in mind that without consulting the doctor, please do not take any medicines. By taking medicines without the advice of a doctor, your health can be seriously damaged.

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